The regions of the frontal lobe which lie rostral to the excitable motor areas are generally associated with the so-called higher integrative processes of the cerebral cortex. In man structural alteration in these regions results in changes such as loss of immediate memory and alterations in personality and behavior. In the monkey extirpation of these areas (fields 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 of Brodmann;1 fig. 1) is followed by similar behavioral changes, without motor paresis. Thus, Ferrier2a (pages 231-232) noted that such animals instead of, as before, being actively interested in their surroundings, and curiously prying into all that came within the field of their observation, remained apathetic, or dull, or dozed off to sleep, responding only to the sensations or impressions of the moment, or varying their listlessness with restless and purposeless wanderings to and fro. While not actually deprived of intelligence, they had lost, to
KENNARD MA. ALTERATIONS IN RESPONSE TO VISUAL STIMULI FOLLOWING LESIONS OF FRONTAL LOBE IN MONKEYS. Arch NeurPsych. 1939;41(6):1153–1165. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurpsyc.1939.02270180081008
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