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September 1939


Arch NeurPsych. 1939;42(3):514-530. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1939.02270210152009

Ancient medical science based its diagnosis mostly on the observation of the patient under the conditions of life to which he happened to be subjected. During the last half century an enormous advance in the precision of medical diagnosis has been achieved by subjecting the various functions of the body to relatively invariable standard tests. For example, the condition of the pyramidal tracts is determined no longer entirely by the character of the patient's conscious muscular efforts but, in addition, by the nature of the plantar response to stimulus applied to the sole and by the tendon reflex as elicited by the percussion hammer.

THE NEED FOR OBJECTIVE PERSONALITY DIAGNOSIS  While the field of organic functions of the body has been increasingly well covered, medicine has been forced to recognize that the physical facts do not tell the whole story about the condition of the patient. It was by following

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