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December 1939

Frustration and Aggression.

Arch NeurPsych. 1939;42(6):1201. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1939.02270240239019

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This study takes as its point cf departure the assumption that aggression is always a consequence of frustration. More specifically, the proposition is that the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration and, contrariwise, that the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression. It is the functional unity represented by the phenomena of catharsis and displacement that justifies attaching the label of aggression to the variety of responses considered in this theoretic presentation.

"Strikes and suicides, race prejudice and reformism, sibling jealousy and lynchings, satirical humor and criminality, street fights and the reading of detective stories, wife-beating and war" are brought under a sort of common denominator. The authors are indebted to the freudian psychology, wherein the dynamics of aggression and frustration have been deduced from clinical experiences. Their data, however, are derived from many and varied investigators. Adolescence, criminality, democracy, fascism, communism and

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