John Hughlings Jackson1 observed that certain aphasic patients could not protrude their tongues when requested to do so. They could, however, eat and drink well, and even lick their lips. While Jackson recognized the significance of this disturbance, he did not designate it by any name. The term apraxia was introduced by Leipmann,2 who made the first intensive studies of this problem. He3 pointed out that apraxia is a motor disturbance that cannot be explained as due to paresis, ataxia, motor discharges, speech deafness, agnosia, dementia or disturbances in primary sensation. He stressed the fact that only distinct categories of movement are involved. The apractic patient does not make every purposeful movement erroneously, nor are all purposeful movements of the involved limb in abeyance.
Liepmann3 designated three types of apraxia: limb-kinetic, ideokinetic and ideational. Limb-kinetic apraxia does not exclude the head region. Only skilful movements of
TEITELBAUM HA, LANGWORTHY OR, KING AB. APRAXIA: REPORT OF A CASE, WITH AUTOPSY. Arch NeurPsych. 1942;48(3):469–475. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurpsyc.1942.02290090125009
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