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August 1943

ELECTRICAL EXCITATION OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX: DESCRIPTION OF A NEW STIMULATOR

Arch NeurPsych. 1943;50(2):183-189. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1943.02290200083007
Abstract

Electrical stimulation of the exposed cerebral cortex at the operating table is increasingly employed by neurosurgeons for purposes of orientation in routine work. The present paper, after a brief historical and critical survey of the stimulator needed in neurosurgery, describes a new stimulating unit designed by one of us (W. E. Rahm Jr.). It has been found by the other (Scarff) to have certain advantages over other instruments, both for practical use and in a number of physiologic aspects.

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL REVIEW OF METHODS  In 1870 Fritsch and Hitzig1 applied galvanic current to the exposed cortex of dogs and observed focal responses in the contralateral extremities. Their report constitutes a great landmark in neurophysiology, for until then there had existed profound and active disagreement between the leading schools of "physic" and philosophy as to whether localization of function was present in the brain. Fritsch and Hitzig demonstrated beyond

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