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September 1946

RING SCOTOMA AND TUBULAR FIELDS: Their Significance in Cases of Head Injury

Author Affiliations

From the United States Naval Hospital, San Diego, Calif.

Arch NeurPsych. 1946;56(3):300-326. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1946.02300200057004

IN EVALUATING a patient's complaints, one is always confronted with the question whether the symptoms are "organic" or "psychogenic." If there is a history which is typical of a well defined syndrome or if a lesion can be demonstrated, the symptoms are accepted as organic. However, if the patient manifests signs of increased emotional tension or if the symptoms and signs are "atypical" or inconsistent or do not follow well known organic patterns, they are often considered psychogenic. Sometimes there is a combination of the two types.

In either instance the symptoms are due to a disorder in function. The patient's reactions in the case of an organic disorder are just as functional as in the case of a neurosis. The difference between the two lies in the origin of the functional disorder and in the manner in which the symptoms manifest themselves. Nevertheless, close analysis will reveal that in

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