The commonly accepted technique of performing encephalography has been to replace a volume of spinal fluid with an equal volume of air or other gases. Adaptations of this technique have been made by Gardner and Nichols,1 by Davidoff and Dyke,2 and by Lindgren,3 who used smaller quantities of gas and/or first injected air before withdrawing any spinal fluid. In 1955 Slosberg et al.4 introduced a new technique of encephalography, which was called the "minimal withdrawal technique." This consisted of injecting 10 to 80 cc. of air into the lumbar subarachnoid space while withdrawing no more than 5 cc. of spinal fluid. A group of 35 patients was studied. Three of these had early papilledema, and four had spinal fluid pressures above 200 mm. H2O.5 An average of 44 cc. of air was injected. Five patients had no headache during the procedure, but these
NELSON DA, JEFFREYS WH, LEAMING RH, McDOWELL F. Encephalography by the Displacement Technique. AMA Arch NeurPsych. 1958;79(5):498–505. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340050026002
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