It has been suggested that the blood of schizophrenic patients contains a toxic factor which may be the cause of some of the symptoms of the disease.1 The identity of this compound has not been established. Particularly interesting, however, are the reports which indicate that an indole may be a toxic factor.2 There are several theories as to how an unusual indole may arise within the metabolism of the organism. One of the most popular involves the oxidation of epinephrine to some indole-like material.3 Heath's study of the oxidation of epinephrine indicates that this substance is oxidized more rapidly by plasma from schizophrenic persons than by that from normal controls.4 Other workers have attempted to show that the copper-containing enzyme, ceruloplasmin, catalyzes this oxidation.5 Akerfeldt has measured the rates of oxidation of N,N'-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and reported the results as indicative of ceruloplasmin levels
FROHMAN CE, GOODMAN M, LUBY ED, BECKETT PGS, SENF R. Ceruloplasmin, Transferrin, and Tryptophan in Schizophrenia. AMA Arch NeurPsych. 1958;79(6):730–734. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340060128019
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