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January 1959

S-3, Schizophrenia Without Psychosis

AMA Arch NeurPsych. 1959;81(1):85-96. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1959.02340130105016

Among the six schizophrenic reaction patterns that emerged out of researches previously reported,1 one pattern is especially distinguished from the other five in characteristics that are, on their face, decidedly not those of schizophrenia. This is our S-3 schizophrenia. Thus, "thinking is coherent" is the behavior item ranking highest among 120 used to describe each patient. Again, the item "can think logically" ranked fifth. Both these behaviors are, of course, the very antithesis of the schizophrenic's as the classical concept of the disease knows him. The paradox stands out, also, when we inspect the items at the bottom of the list. Last among 120 items is "hallucinatory with much ego disorganization." This is a sample of behavior describing the S-3 patients as they are not.

The question immediately arises: What about these patients warrants calling them schizophrenic? Clinically, they are baffling persons from the time they come to the