Throughout an arc described by the islands of the Caribbean, the shores of the Amazon, and as far as the western ridges of the Andes, in Colombia and Peru, there has been used since pre-Columbian times a snuff variously known as cohoba, niopo, parica, and yopo, among other designations.1-11 With minor variations, this snuff is prepared from seeds of Piptadenia peregrina by grinding with calcined clam shells or wood ashes. It is inhaled or is forcibly blown into the nostrils of the person to be intoxicated by it. Descriptions of the action of the snuff vary somewhat, but the one we have previously reported,12 given us by Dr. Jacques Fourcand, is typical. The inhalation of the snuff is quickly followed by rigidity and staring and, at times, a convulsion. This gives way to an excited state, which may last an hour more or less and in which there
TURNER WJ, MERLIS S. Effect of Some Indolealkylamines on Man. AMA Arch NeurPsych. 1959;81(1):121–129. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurpsyc.1959.02340130141020
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