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November 23/30, 2011

Urinary Sodium and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Informing Guidelines for Sodium Consumption

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

JAMA. 2011;306(20):2262-2264. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1746

Almost every national health agency1-4 and professional society5 recommends a reduction in dietary sodium intake as a means to lower blood pressure (BP) and prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). For US adults in the general population, goals for sodium intake have generally ranged from no more than 1500 mg/d5 to no more than 2300 mg/d.2 In the latter context, guidelines have typically suggested sodium intake of no more than 1500 mg/d in black individuals, middle-aged and older persons, and individuals with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney disease.2 In part because these groups constitute nearly 70% of US adults,6 the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended a sodium intake of no more than 1500 mg/d for the general population.7 Most US adults consume a diet that exceeds even the 2300-mg/d goal, with an estimated sodium intake of nearly 5 g/d, excluding table salt, in 30- to 39-year-old men.8