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The Cover
February 8, 2012

Dynamism of a Human Body

JAMA. 2012;307(6):543. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.34

The frenzy of styles in the art world in the first decades of the 20th century reflected the general unease of transition: changes in borders, assassinations, wars, imperialism, women's suffrage, and the spread of industrialization. One movement in Western European art paralleled its literary, poetic, and political components, arising in Italy in 1909, courtesy of poet and revolutionary Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. His “The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism,” integrally Italian, ironically was published in the French Le Figaro. Espousing violence and anarchy and resounding with the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, the manifesto gained popularity with the artistic avant-garde, including painter and sculptor Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916).