Clinically the surgical tumors of the kidney include pyo- and hydronephrosis, cystic kidney and echinococcus. We therefore conveniently group and consider them with the true neoplasms. Reginald Harrison makes a practical subdivision of these tumors into those of congenital and post-congenital origin.
In the arrangement of the program the symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis have been assigned to me, to the consideration of which we will at once proceed, endeavoring to emphasize only the more reliable and constant points, asking indulgence if repeating much already well known to the Fellows. Two or more of the four cardinal symptoms are almost always sufficient to enable us to make a diagnosis: 1. Tumor in renal region. 2. Hematuria. 3. Pain. 4. Cachexia.
The most frequent first symptom to attract attention to the part is enlargement, noted as often by the patient or parents as by the physician, and, on examination by him,
M'ARTHUR LL. SYMPTOMATOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT OF NEOPLASMS OF THE KIDNEY.. JAMA. 1900;XXXIV(11):641–643. doi:10.1001/jama.1900.24610110001001
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