In the current era of evidence-based medicine (EBM), clinicians are expected to use the best available evidence in patient care. Five examples of comparative effectiveness research investigations1-5 using observational research methods are included in this theme issue of JAMA. These articles provide new evidence for clinicians to consider, with important messages for each topic under investigation. The studies have in common the potential difficulty of understanding methods of the study designs and analyses—specifically propensity scores and instrumental variables.
Concato J. Is It Time for Medicine-Based Evidence? JAMA. 2012;307(15):1641–1643. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.482
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