Pectus excavatum rarely causes symptoms in infants or children. Respiratory and cardiac function tests are usually normal, despite the presence of the defect. The main indication for surgical repair in childhood is cosmetic. The "minor" corrective operation is generally ineffective. The "major" operation is time-consuming but safe and effective.
Becker JM, Schneider KM. Indications for the Surgical Treatment of Pectus Excavatum. JAMA. 1962;180(1):22–24. doi:10.1001/jama.1962.03050140024005
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