Cardiac catheterization, like many other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, poses especially difficult problems for the anesthesiologist when the patient is too young to cooperate. The procedure here outlined consists of a sequence of steps whereby the requisite degree of tranquility, analgesia, and amnesia can be attained without interfering with the tests or examinations being carried out. Upon this background it is possible to superpose anesthesia with nitrous oxide, cyclopropane, or ether for short periods when necessary. Exact calculation of dosages is essential. Applied in 133 cases of cardiac catheterization and 100 comparable operations of other kinds, this plan has reduced to a minimum the respiratory and other reflex disturbances which otherwise make it difficult to interpret results.
Lundy JS. AMNESIA-ANALGESIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN TOO YOUNG TO COOPERATE: FURTHER OBSERVATIONS. JAMA. 1959;169(11):1184–1187. doi:10.1001/jama.1959.03000280036009
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