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August 29, 1936


JAMA. 1936;107(9):716-718. doi:10.1001/jama.1936.02770350084017

Since the introduction more than a year ago of two poliomyelitis vaccines,1 nearly 20,000 persons have received one or more inoculations of these monkey spinal cord preparations bearing the virus. Similar vaccines were tested in the laboratory by several groups during the previous two decades. Killed and partially attenuated virus was employed without demonstration of an adequate immunity in more than a certain percentage of experimental monkeys. Among the methods used to "attenuate" the virus, phenol, formaldehyde, desiccation, heating below the thermal death point of the virus and dilution were tried. Virus adsorbed to alumina gel and incorporated in olive oil and agar were tested in the hope that prolonged contact with the host might increase the quantity of antibody production. Neutralizing antibodies were produced in nearly all these attempts, but few animals resisted intracerebral or intranasal application of virulent virus as an immunity test.2 Indeed, in the

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