The most common complaints for which patients seek medical aid are those referable to the digestive system. The biliary tract ranks high among the abdominal organs which give rise to these complaints. According to a recent report, 24.5 per cent of women and 9 per cent of men over 39 years of age who complain of "dyspepsia" have gallbladder disease.1 Necropsy records reveal an incidence of gallstones varying from 6 to 32 per cent in the occident; they also reveal an incidence of visible gallbladder disease varying from 50 to 66 per cent.2 Thus, the frequency of gallbladder disease is such as to emphasize the importance of a clear understanding of the normal and applied physiology of the organ and the ducts with which it connects. Since on previous occasions the physiology of the gallbladder and the sphincter of Oddi have been rather completely reviewed,3 this paper
IVY AC, GOLDMAN L. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BILIARY TRACT: CLINICAL LECTURE AT ST. LOUIS SESSION. JAMA. 1939;113(27):2413–2417. doi:10.1001/jama.1939.72800520004008
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