INVESTIGATING the action of drugs in humans is an honored and respected calling—a calling that has been followed by some of medicine's giants: Lind, Jenner, Withering, Pasteur, Koch, Ehrlich, Flexner, and Minot—to mention only a few. As the pace of discovery has quickened, hosts of investigators have been enlisted in the cause, some who were well-trained, others who were neophytes, some who were eager to serve, and others who had to be pressed into service. Some drugs have been investigated by basic scientists, others by clinicians.
The study of drugs by clinicians is a part of clinical investigation. The importance of clinical investigation has been recognized in the United States by the formation of special societies: national societies such as the Association of American Physicians founded in 1885, the American Society for Clinical Investigation founded in 1908, the American Federation for Clinical Research founded in 1940, several regional societies such as the Central, Southern, and Western Societies for Clinical
Dowling HF. Responsibility for Testing Drugs in Humans. JAMA. 1964;187(3):212–215. doi:10.1001/jama.1964.03060160040009
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