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Global Health
January 16, 2013

HIV Drugs and Malaria

JAMA. 2013;309(3):223. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.206200

Treatment with a combination of protease inhibitors reduces the incidence of malaria in children infected with HIV, report researchers in Uganda and the United States (Achan J et al. N Engl J Med. 2012;367[22]:2110-2118).

In the open-label randomized trial, the participants—170 children aged 5 months to 5 years in Uganda who were infected with HIV—received antimalarial drugs and either of 2 anti-HIV therapies: the protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir or non–nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Although neither regimen lowered the children's risk of developing malaria during the first 6 months of the study, risk of recurrence of malaria after successful treatment with the antimalarial drug artemether-lumefantrine was reduced by 41% in the group receiving protease inhibitors compared with those receiving NNRTIs. There was an increase in serious adverse events in the group receiving protease inhibitors.