Author Affiliations: Cardiology Division, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (Dr Butler); Cardiology Division, University of California, Los Angeles (Dr Fonarow); and Center of Cardiovascular Innovation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (Dr Gheorghiade).
More than a million hospitalizations for heart failure (HHF) occur annually in the United States, with mortality and readmission rates up to 50% within 60 to 90 days after discharge. The annual costs for HF care exceed $40 billion, with the majority spent on HHF. Hospital reimbursement is now tied to 30-day readmission rates among patients with HF.1 Most HHF patients have worsening chronic HF and are receiving recommended therapies. Despite improved signs or symptoms by discharge, postdischarge event rates remain high. About half of the HHF patients have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction for which there is no evidence-based treatment.
Butler J, Fonarow GC, Gheorghiade M. Strategies and Opportunities for Drug Development in Heart Failure. JAMA. 2013;309(15):1593–1594. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.1063
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