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Article
June 4, 1898

PHYSICAL DEFECTS IN PUPILS.

Author Affiliations

PROFESSOR OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, CHICAGO POLICLINIC, ETC. CHICAGO, ILL.

JAMA. 1898;XXX(23):1336-1340. doi:10.1001/jama.1898.72440750024002h
Abstract

I will take up that phase of the subject which deals with the problem of how best to preserve the eyesight of school children, a theme which is pregnant with importance. The prosecution of this subject opens up a wide field, involving not only those elements or conditions, which primarily and particularly bear upon ocular hygiene, such as print, lighting, etc., but also bear upon those circumstances obtaining during the school life of the child, which can either directly or indirectly affect the preservation or degeneration of his eyesight. Such consideration will lead us into a discussion of architecture, buildings, location, window space, lighting (natural and artificial), seats, desks, walls, blackboards, maps, charts, paper, slates, printed matter, writing, etc.

The importance of this topic may be imagined, when we consider that James H. Blodgett, in 1890, estimated that over fourteen million children were in attendance in the different schools and

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