Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and consequential.1 It is estimated that 6% to 8% of noninstitutionalized US adults have a glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (consistent with CKD stage 3a or worse) and nearly 10% have albuminuria.2 Both persistently reduced glomerular filtration rate (usually estimated from creatinine and demographic factors) and kidney damage (usually assessed with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [ACR]) are strong and independent risk factors for mortality and cardiovascular events, leading some to consider CKD to be a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent.3 Although the concerning increase in the prevalence of CKD has been recognized for some time,2 recent data indicate that the number of deaths from CKD have doubled between 1990 and 2010.4
Weiner DE, Winkelmayer WC. Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Risk: Whether Black or White Race Matters. JAMA. 2013;310(7):697–698. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.8779
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