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Special Communication
November 27, 2013

World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects

World Medical Association
JAMA. 2013;310(20):2191-2194. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.281053

Adopted by the 18th WMA General Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, and amended by the:

29th WMA General Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975

35th WMA General Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983

41st WMA General Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989

48th WMA General Assembly, Somerset West, Republic of South Africa, October 1996

52nd WMA General Assembly, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 2000

53rd WMA General Assembly, Washington, DC, USA, October 2002 (Note of Clarification added)

55th WMA General Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 2004 (Note of Clarification added)

59th WMA General Assembly, Seoul, Republic of Korea, October 2008

64th WMA General Assembly, Fortaleza, Brazil, October 2013

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