In Reply: Dr Kumar expresses concern that our epidemiologic study may encourage the use of pharmacological analgesia for procedures that may not be associated with significant pain. He notes that in the NEOPAIN trial, morphine therapy did not improve clinical outcomes in ventilated preterm infants and that open-label morphine doses were associated with significant adverse effects.1,2
Carbajal R, Anand KJS. Prevention of Pain in Neonates—Reply. JAMA. 2008;300(19):2248–2249. doi:10.1001/jama.2008.611
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