Author Affiliations: Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, and Center for Human Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (Dr Shah); and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (Dr de Lemos).
Personalized medicine aims to use individual biological signals to improve disease detection, risk stratification, and therapeutic selection. Such a strategy holds great appeal to practitioners, who are increasingly disillusioned with the “one size fits all” approach that characterizes contemporary medicine. Key to achieving these goals is integration of genetics and biomarkers with currently available clinical data. While the model of personalized medicine is appealing, many questions remain about which markers are diagnostic, prognostic, or pathologic.
Svati H. Shah, James A. de Lemos. Biomarkers and Cardiovascular DiseaseDetermining Causality and Quantifying Contribution to Risk Assessment. JAMA. 2009;302(1):92–93. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.949