Author Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (Dr Ludwig); and Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (Dr Brownell).
By the 1930s, observational studies had suggested a link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer and, by the 1950s, strong evidence for a causal role had emerged. However, comprehensive measures to reduce cigarette smoking in the United States were delayed until after the 1964 Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health, in part due to the political influence of the tobacco industry.1
Ludwig DS, Brownell KD. Public Health Action Amid Scientific Uncertainty: The Case of Restaurant Calorie Labeling Regulations. JAMA. 2009;302(4):434–435. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1045
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