Author Affiliations: Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
Surgeons, like musicians, can be considered performers. Traditionally, surgeons have learned their craft through a prolonged apprenticeship that allows trainees to gain a wide repertoire of skills by assisting at and performing numerous operations. Supervision was tailored to each surgeon's level of experience and the demands of the procedure. Surgeons learned how to cope with a wide range of problems and complications by repeated practice located within the performance of actual operations.
Kneebone RL. Practice, Rehearsal, and PerformanceAn Approach for Simulation-Based Surgical and Procedure Training. JAMA. 2009;302(12):1336–1338. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1392