Aggressive behavior involving a power imbalance, bullying is inflicted on an adolescent by another adolescent, or even by a group of youths, and it is highly likely to be repeated again and again. Bullying can cause physical, psychological, social, or educational harm.1 It can take the form of physical assaults, verbal harassment, and threatening behaviors, or it could involve psychological and social strategies (eg, exclusion, rumor spreading). Similarly, cyberbullying is defined as victimization perpetrated through information technologies (ie, cell phones, Internet). Prevalence figures of bullying appear to vary somewhat across countries. Large-scale cross-national studies have estimated that 10% to 20% of youth have been bullied by peers during their school years, while 5% to 15% have bullied others.2 Moreover, many children who are bullied experience repeated and sustained victimization across time.
Gini G, Espelage DL. Peer Victimization, Cyberbullying, and Suicide Risk in Children and Adolescents. JAMA. 2014;312(5):545–546. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.3212
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