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August 11, 1999

Can Perinatal HIV Infection Be Eliminated in the United States?

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliation: Pediatric, Adolescent and Maternal AIDS Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Md.

JAMA. 1999;282(6):577-579. doi:10.1001/jama.282.6.577

In February 1994, the results of a clinical trial that would change the face of the pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States were announced. The trial, Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) protocol 076, demonstrated that a zidovudine regimen given to HIV-infected women during pregnancy and labor and to the neonate for the first 6 weeks of life could reduce the risk of perinatal transmission by two thirds—from 26% in placebo to 8% in zidovudine recipients.1