The Republic of Uzbekistan is a land-locked country in central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan and the desiccated Aral Sea to the north, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Afghanistan to the south, Tajikistan to the southeast, and Turkmenistan to the southwest. It straddles the Silk Road, a cross-continental trade route that enriched the Uzbek cities of Tashkent and Samarkand before the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire in the 14th century. Much of the old city of Tashkent was destroyed in a 1966 earthquake, but Samarkand has been able to preserve its Islamic architecture and its folk art traditions of embroidery, weaving, engraving, ceramics, and painting on wood. In the far northwest corner of Uzbekistan is the autonomous region of Karakalpakstan, known for the archaeological site of Khorezm and the Nukus Museum, home of the Savistsky Collection of Uzbek and Russian avant-garde art.
Thomas B. Cole. Crimson AutumnUral Tansykbaev . JAMA. 2014;312(15):1496–1497. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.279783