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The Cover
October 17, 2001

The Stronghold

Author Affiliations

The Cover Section Editor: M. Therese Southgate, MD, Senior Contributing Editor.

JAMA. 2001;286(15):1808. doi:10.1001/jama.286.15.1808

His name was Amadeo de Souza Cardoso (1887-1918), but he preferred to be called simply "Amadeo," perhaps in tribute to his close friend, the Italian painter Amedeo Modigliani (JAMA cover, December 22/29, 1999). He himself was Portuguese, born in Manhufe, on the 14th of November, 1887. He moved to Paris when he was 18, in 1906, the same year Cézanne died and it was there that he met Modigliani, also newly arrived in Paris from his native Italy.

Amadeo de Souza Cardoso's early works were landscapes, small in size, but after 1912 he adopted the Cubist style; unlike those of Braque and Picasso, however, Amadeo's paintings were colorful. In Paris Amadeo also met the Delaunays, Robert and Sonia, and it was under their influence that color had begun to dominate his work. Even when, in the summer of 1914, he returned to landscape painting, color remained predominant over form. In 1913 several of Amadeo's works were exhibited in the United States as part of the Armory show.