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December 22/29, 2004

Approval of Virtual Reality Training for Carotid Stenting: What This Means for Procedural-Based Medicine

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Department of Surgery (Dr Gallagher) and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine (Dr Cates), Emory University and the Emory Heart Center, Atlanta, Ga.

JAMA. 2004;292(24):3024-3026. doi:10.1001/jama.292.24.3024

Percutaneous endovascular procedures confer benefits to patients similar to those seen with minimally invasive surgery, such as minimal invasion of the body cavity, reduced pain, shortened recovery time, and more rapid return to work. However, minimally invasive surgery and endovascular procedures also share similar problems.1 As with minimally invasive surgery, endovascular procedures require physicians to perform invasive procedures guided by 2-dimensional video images while using and manipulating tools with limited degrees of freedom. Endovascular procedures also require the operator to adapt to significantly decreased tactile sensation and overcome similar proprioceptive-visual conflict issues from manipulating long wires or instruments that can fulcrum against the body wall. These hurdles combine to create substantial challenges for physicians training to acquire these skills.