In any consideration of the treatment of stammering, it is convenient and desirable to make three classes. In the first class we put all those nervous children who present any abnormalities of speech development; in the second class, those who have begun to show a tendency stammer by an occasional hesitancy of speech, and in the third class, the confirmed stammerers, those who not only stammer but who know that they stammer, and whose natures have been deeply influenced by it. There are three stages of the affection, therefore, the prodromal, the acute, and the chronic. The first stage is generally characterized by the psycho-physical condition called nervousness, and the speech is rapid and blustering. The second stage is like the first, but it presents the added phenomena of speech hesitation and a more or less frequent repetition of certain sounds. The third stage may represent
MAKUEN GH. THE TREATMENT OF STAMMERING. JAMA. 1910;55(10):853–855. doi:10.1001/jama.1910.04330100039011
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