In the study of the pathologic physiology of the gall-bladder and gall-tracts we are constantly confronted by the facts that all the various digestive organs, the liver, duodenum, pancreas, stomach, etc., are functionally synergistic, and not, as was formerly supposed, separate and incoordinate units, and that disease in one portion may manifest itself primarily by symptoms referred to an entirely different part. There are also universal symptoms, symptoms common to disease of any part of the digestive tract, which are still considered as neuroses due in some mysterious way to anything or to nothing in particular. The symptomatology of the diseases of the digestive tract is very confusing; and we need not wonder therefore why nearly all diseases of the gall-bladder and bile-tracts are not recognized early and are permitted to develop into dangerous and serious complications before operation is undertaken. Since the pancreas has the fatal defect of sharing
RUNYAN JP. PATHOLOGY OF GALL-BLADDER AND BILETRACTS. JAMA. 1910;55(27):2293–2296. doi:10.1001/jama.1910.04330270015007
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