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Article
May 10, 1913

SPASMODIC TORTICOLLIS: NOTES ON THE ETIOLOGY IN TWO CASES

Author Affiliations

SAN FRANCISCO

From the Neurological Clinic, Medical Department Leland Stanford Jr. University.

JAMA. 1913;60(19):1421-1423. doi:10.1001/jama.1913.04340190015008
Abstract

I employ the term "spasmodic torticollis" generically and do not wish to be understood as classing all conditions presenting this symptom (for it must be borne in mind that torticollis is a symptom and not, properly speaking, a disease) as a spasm. In fact, the object of this paper is to analyze the symptoms of two cases, which have come under my notice recently through the kindness of Dr. Emmet Rixford, in order to determine if possible whether we are dealing with a tic or a spasm.

Accepting the classification of Brissaud, we define a spasm to be a reflex movement due to an irritation somewhere along the pathway of the peripheral reflex arc; while a tic has its origin in the higher psychic functions and is the uncontrollable and often unconscious imitation of a purposive act. I shall recall the chief points of difference between a tic and a

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