INTERPRETATION OF OCULAR DISCOMFORT
From the evidence at hand it seems quite certain that ocular discomfort, the result of exposure of the eyes to light, and especially that observed during close work under improper artificial illumination, must be interpreted largely as muscular fatigue of, and pain in, the extra-ocular and intra-ocular muscles, the result of their constant contraction or spasm in attempting to protect the retina from too much light. The question immediately: Why should this be brought about by artificial light of a certain intensity when there is no complaint made by possessors of healthy eyes from daylight illumination of several times intensity? It seems to us to be based to a large extent on the absence of the adaptatione of the eyes to a comparatively new condition. By adaptation, in this case, is not meant light and dark adaptation of the retina, but adaptation of the eyes by process of evolution to a new environment.
EVOLUTION OF THE EYE
Evolutionary changes in any organ of the body
BLACK NM, VAUGHN FA. ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION, A FACTOR IN OCULAR DISCOMFORT. JAMA. 1913;61(13_part_2):1183–1188. doi:10.1001/jama.1913.04350140099022
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