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At a meeting of the New York Obstetrical Society, Dec. 11, 1917, I made a preliminary report on a device I am now using in abdominal work, for the purpose of keeping the intestine away from the field of operation without inflicting injury to the peritoneal covering. It may be of interest in this connection to recall that the first material popularly adopted to prevent the intestines from protruding from the abdominal wound and from entering the field of operation was the elephant ear, or flat sea sponge. Next in order was gauze, the introduction of which encountered much opposition. Gauze was used in the form of pads or strips, first dry, then wet, and more recently, gauze pads dipped in melted wax. The sea sponge was soft and supposed to be nonirritating to the peritoneum; but in reality it was irritating, as it held in its interstices innumerable silicon
Bissell D. A RUBBER ENVELOP ABDOMINAL PAD. JAMA. 1918;70(10):677–678. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1918.26010100001009
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