Heart failure is usually associated with left ventricular dysfunction. According to recent guidelines, patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40% are considered to have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or systolic heart failure (Table). Patients with a LVEF ≥50% and symptoms of heart failure are considered to have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or diastolic heart failure; there is little evidence that drug treatment improves clinical outcomes in these patients.1,2 The treatment of acute heart failure is not included here.
Drugs for Chronic Heart Failure. JAMA. 2015;313(10):1052–1053. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.1302
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