Strictures of the ureter may be due to causes that are either congenital or acquired.
Acquired strictures of the ureter may be classified into those due to (1) trauma resulting from gunshot and stab wounds, postoperative conditions, labor, and passage of calculi; (2) inflammatory strictures, the result of infection. These inflammatory strictures may be classified into, (a) those that are the result of direct extension from periurethral infections, (b) those in which the infection has either ascended along the mucosa from the bladder, or has descended from the kidney, and (c) those resulting from focal infections. Strictures due to tuberculosis will not be considered in this discussion.
Hunner,1 in his excellent report of "One Hundred Cases of Ureteral Stricture," believes that focal infections play an important rôle in the etiology of ureteral strictures. He states that he is firmly convinced that "The majority of ureteral strictures, excluding those of
HERBST RH. ACQUIRED STRICTURE OF THE LOWER END OF THE URETER. JAMA. 1918;71(21):1722–1727. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1918.02600470020008
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