The question of the relationship of different races to one another is a matter of considerable interest. Up to the present, morphologic criteria have been used almost exclusively in attempts to decide what this relationship is. Various anthropometric tests have been devised, for example, the so-called cranial index, the facial angle, and similar tests. These tests are in a sense as obvious as differences in stature, and such striking differences in conformation as the peculiarities in the eye slits which characterize the oriental races. With the advent of immunologic knowledge, the methods of serology were applied to the study of racial peculiarities. In the early days of serology, the precipitin test was used to demonstrate the blood relationship between man and the higher apes. The possibility of differentiating groups within the same species was not apparent until some time after serology became well established. Indeed, it was not until Landsteiner
THE DETERMINATION OF RACIAL RELATIONSHIPS BY MEANS OF BLOOD. JAMA. 1919;73(26):1941–1942. doi:10.1001/jama.1919.02610520031019
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