Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and frequently associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Elevated serum creatinine levels in patients after surgery are associated with poor outcomes.1,2 A small increase in serum creatinine in hospitalized patients is associated with higher mortality, longer hospitalization, and higher cost of care.3 Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), defined as acute injury to the renal tubular epithelial cells, may occur following severe renal ischemia or exposure to nephrotoxins.
Pan JS, Sheikh-Hamad D. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Kidney Protection. JAMA. 2015;313(21):2124–2125. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.5085
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