Though I may not be able to inform men more than they know, yet I may be able to give them occasion to consider.— Sir W. Temple.
In the last decade, from conversations with various persons at our special meetings, I have been impressed by the general diversity of opinion regarding the use of minus cylinders in routine refractions. From what I have been able to deduce, this difference of view is largely due to a failure to employ the principles of physiologic optics involved in the geometrical figure of the conoid of Sturm, coupled with the faulty use of astigmatic charts or the use of charts which were at fault in proper construction or, when astigmatic charts were not used, failure to grasp one of the first fundamental rules of refraction: "As much plus or as little minus spherical power as the patient will accept, combined with the weakest
HEITGER JD. ADVANTAGES OF THE USE OF MINUS CYLINDERS IN ROUTINE REFRACTIONS. JAMA. 1922;79(18):1475–1480. doi:10.1001/jama.1922.02640180009002
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