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The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is increasing in pediatric populations.1 Although the degree of hyperglycemia and frequency of ketoacidosis at initial presentation of those with type 1 diabetes have steadily declined,2 diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains the leading cause of death in children and young people (aged <24 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus.3,4 Cerebral edema can be difficult to recognize and manage in children and represents the major cause of the continued mortality and morbidity associated with DKA in this population.4
Carmody D, Naylor RN, Philipson LH. Insulin Dosing in Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Where to Start? JAMA. 2015;313(22):2274–2275. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.135
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