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The literature of twenty-five years ago discloses the fact that chronic ulcer was hardly recognized by pathologists of the time, and the clinical picture of the disease was entirely overlooked. The presence of ulcer was usually suspected through the occurrence of hemorrhage, perforation or pyloric stenosis. We owe our knowledge of the pathology and symptomatology of chronic ulcer primarily to surgical exploration, but roentgen-ray study of ulcer, in more recent years, has opened an entirely new avenue of approach. The accurate location of the site and determination of the kind of lesion, or a definite negative diagnosis, can now be attended with only a small percentage of error; and the employment of this method of study in gastro-intestinal cases, in general, makes possible the accurate diagnosis of a variety of ulcer-simulating lesions. Roentgenology, used more and more as a routine, is destined to have a far-reaching effect on our conceptions
ROBERTS D. ULCER OF THE STOMACH AND DUODENUM: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT FROM THE ROENTGENOLOGIC STANDPOINT. JAMA. 1922;79(27):2226–2228. doi:10.1001/jama.1922.02640270024013
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