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Last month, Professor Hellpach, instructor in psychology at the polytechnic in Karlsruhe, and now minister of public instruction in Baden, delivered an address before the Heidelberg Naturhistorischmedizinische Verein on the influence of heredity and environment on physiognomy or facial expression. As distinct from the inherited manifestations and qualities of constitution and race, which are comprised under the term "genotype," Hellpach distinguishes a "phenotype," which is characteristic of the tribe or clan. Marks of the phenotype become stamped on the face at about the fifteenth year of age, and are dependent on the place of residence or the environment. The influence of the genotype breaks its way through and manifests itself also in children born in the new environment of parents of a different stock or even in children who were brought to a new region in their early childhood. Hellpach referred to statues of German painters (using for
BERLIN. JAMA. 1923;80(4):267–268. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02640310047026