Cystin calculi are comparatively rare. Until 1882 only fifty cases of cystinuria had been reported in the literature. Kretschmer,1 in his comprehensive study of the subject of cystinuria and cystin stones, found reports of only 107 cases of the stones, including two cases of his own, which occurred in twin boys, aged 9 years. The chemical examination of these two cases demonstrated that they were pure cystin, the diagnosis having been made in each case before operation. Both patients had vesical stones.
Watson and Cunningham2 report one case of cystin calculus in thirty-two cases of cystinuria, Morris,3 two in seventy-seven, and Sir Henry Thompson three in 114 cases. That cystinuria is a constitutional problem and the etiologic factor in cystin calculi is well known.
According to Abderhalden,4 "the metabolism of the cystinuria patient is always normal, and urinary stones are frequently found in the disease." That
TENNANT CE. CYSTIN CALCULI: A COMPLEX SURGICAL PROBLEM: REPORT OF CASE OF MULTIPLE CYSTIN CALCULI. JAMA. 1923;80(5):305–307. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02640320017007
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