In 1908, C. F. Hoover1 of Cleveland described a new sign for the detection of malingering and functional paresis of the lower extremities. Hoover observed that if a normal person, lying in a dorsal position, attempted to lift one of the lower extremities while extended, the heel of the opposite extremity tended to be forced downward in an endeavor to counterbalance the lifting effort expended in the elevation of the opposite leg. If the hand of the observer was placed beneath the Achilles tendon of one extremity and the opposite leg elevated while extended, it was found that the muscular resistance offered by the passive extremity equaled that necessary to elevate the opposite leg. In patients suffering from organic motor paresis of one lower extremity, it was found, when effort was made to elevate the extended and palsied member, that the opposite and unaffected leg made counterpressure downward, whether
THROCKMORTON TB. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR DEMONSTRATING MOTOR PARALYSIS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HOOVER'S SIGN. JAMA. 1923;80(15):1058–1060. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02640420020008
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