In the majority of cases, the condition for the relief of which transplantation of the ureters is indicated is a congenital anomaly known as exstrophy of the bladder; this condition is not progressive, and regarding its causation no information which will affect the condition itself may be expected to be developed. It is estimated that exstrophy of the bladder occurs once in every 30,000 to 50,000 births. If this is a correct estimate, there must be about 2,000 cases of exstrophy in the United States. With one or two exceptions, no single surgeon has had more than a very limited series of cases, so that when the occasional case comes to him he has no basis of judgment as to the best mode of procedure. It follows that in many cases only a plastic operation is performed which closes the external defect but does not relieve the chief source of
LOWER WE. DISPOSITION OF URETERS IN CERTAIN ABNORMAL CONDITIONS OF THE URINARY BLADDER. JAMA. 1923;80(17):1200–1204. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02640440014004
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