Believing that perhaps more light could be thrown on the interesting subject of recurrent calculi by an exhaustive study of cases in a clinic as yet unheard from on this problem, I undertook this investigation.
Surgical procedure for vesical calculi greatly antedates that for kidney and ureteral calculi. Ultzman 1 quotes Olympios of Athens as having shown that lithotrity was done in the ninth century. About 1560, Pierre France first removed a vesical stone by suprapubic lithotomy in a child 10 years of age, and the patient recovered. Civiale, Jan. 13, 1824, actually first crushed a vesical calculus by an instrument passed through the urethra. In 1878, litholapaxy was introduced by Henry J. Bigelow of Boston. In 1871, Simon2 first performed nephrectomy for renal calculus. In 1880, Czerny first performed pyelolithotomy, and in the same year, Morris first performed nephrolithotomy.
In 1901, Israel3 reported a case of bilateral
LAU FT. RECURRENT CALCULI IN THE URINARY TRACT. JAMA. 1925;84(4):272–278. doi:10.1001/jama.1925.02660300030009
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